- X. Yang,
**D. Liu**, and D. Wang, "Reinforcement learning for adaptive optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with input constraints,"*International Journal of Control*, vol.87, no.3, pp.553-566, Mar. 2014. **D. Liu**and Q. Wei, "Policy iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for discrete-time nonlinear systems,"*IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems*, vol.25, no.3, pp.621-634, Mar. 2014.**D. Liu**, D. Wang, and H. Li, "Decentralized stabilization for a class of continuous-time nonlinear interconnected systems using online learning optimal control approach,"*IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems*, vol.25, no.2, pp.418-428, Feb. 2014.- D. Zhang,
**D. Liu**, and D. Wang, "Approximate optimal solution of the DTHJB equation for a class of nonlinear affine systems with unknown dead-zone constraints,"*Soft Computing*, vol.18, no.2, pp.349-357, Feb. 2014. - Y. Huang and
**D. Liu**, "Neural-network-based optimal tracking control scheme for a class of unknown discrete-time nonlinear systems using iterative ADP algorithm,"*Neurocomputing*, vol.125, pp.46-56, Feb. 2014. **D. Liu**, X. Yang, and H. Li, "Adaptive optimal control for a class of continuous-time affine nonlinear systems with unknown internal dynamics,"*Neural Computing and Applications*, vol.23, no.7-8, pp.1843-1850, Dec. 2013.- D. Wang and
**D. Liu**, "Neuro-optimal control for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamic systems using SN-DHP technique,"*Neurocomputing*, vol.121, pp.218-225, Dec. 2013. - X. Yang,
**D. Liu**, and Y. Huang, "Neural-network-based online optimal control for uncertain nonlinear continuous-time systems with control constraints,"*IET Control Theory & Applications*, vol.7, no.17, pp.2037-2047, Nov. 2013. **D. Liu**, Y. Huang, D. Wang, and Q. Wei, "Neural network observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming,"*International Journal of Control*, vol.86, no.9, pp.1554-1566, Sept. 2013.- Q. Wei and
**D. Liu**, "Numerical adaptive learning control scheme for discrete-time nonlinear systems,"*IET Control Theory & Applications*, vol.7, no.11, pp.1472-1486, July 2013. **D. Liu**, H. Li, and D. Wang, "Neural-network-based zero-sum game for discrete-time nonlinear systems via iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm,"*Neurocomputing*, vol.110, pp.92-100, June 2013.**D. Liu**and Q. Wei, "Finite-approximation-error based optimal control approach for discrete-time nonlinear systems,"*IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics*, vol.43, no.2, pp.779-789, Apr. 2013.- T. Huang and
**D. Liu**, "A self-learning scheme for residential energy system control and management,"*Neural Computing and Applications*, vol.22, no.2, pp.259–269, Feb. 2013. - D. Wang,
**D. Liu**, D. Zhao, Y. Huang, and D. Zhang, "A neural-network-based iterative GDHP approach for solving a class of nonlinear optimal control problems with control constraints,"*Neural Computing and Applications*, vol.22, no.2, pp.219–227, Feb. 2013. **D. Liu**, D. Wang, and X. Yang, "An iterative ADP algorithm for optimal control of unknown discrete-time nonlinear systems with constrained inputs,"*Information Sciences*, vol.220, pp.331–342, Jan. 2013.- H. Li and
**D. Liu**, "Optimal control for discrete-time affine nonlinear systems using general value iteration,"*IET Control Theory & Applications*, vol.6, no.18, pp.2725–2736, Dec. 2012. - D. Wang,
**D. Liu**, Q. Wei, D. Zhao, and N. Jin, “Optimal control of unknown nonaffine nonlinear discrete-time systems based on adaptive dynamic programming,”*Automatica*, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1825–1832, Aug. 2012. - Q. Wei and
**D. Liu**, “An iterative epsilon-optimal control scheme for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with unfixed initial state,”*Neural Networks*, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 236–244, Aug. 2012. -
**D. Liu**, D. Wang, D. Zhao, Q. Wei, and N. Jin, “Neural-network-based optimal control for a class of unknown discrete-time nonlinear systems using globalized dual heuristic programming,”*IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering*, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 628–634, July 2012. - D. Wang,
**D. Liu**, and Q. Wei, “Finite-horizon neuro-optimal tracking control for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming approach,”*Neurocomputing*, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 14–22, Feb. 2012. - Q. Wei and
**D. Liu**, "Finite horizon optimal control of discrete-time nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics using adaptive dynamic programming,"*Journal of Control Theory and Applications*, vol.9, no.3, pp.381-390, 2011. - H. Zhang, Q. Wei, and
**D. Liu**, "An iterative adaptive dynamic programming method for solving a class of nonlinear zero-sum differential games,"*Automatica*, vol.47, no.1, pp.207-214, Jan. 2011. - F. Y. Wang,
N. Jin,
**D. Liu**, and Q. Wei, "Adaptive dynamic programming for finite horizon optimal control of discrete-time nonlinear systems with epsilon-error bound,"*IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks*, vol.22, no.1, pp.24-36, Jan. 2011. - Q. Wei, H. Zhang,
**D. Liu**, and Y. Zhao, "An optimal control scheme for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with time delays using adaptive dynamic programming,"*ACTA Automatica Sinica*, vol.36, no.1, pp.121-129, Jan. 2010. - H. Zhang, Y. Luo, and
**D. Liu**, "Neural-network-based near-optimal control for a class of discrete-time affine nonlinear systems with control constraints,"*IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks*, vol.20, no.9, pp.1490-1503, Sept. 2009. - F. Y. Wang, H. Zhang, and
**D. Liu**, "Adaptive dynamic programming: an introduction,"*IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine*, vol.4, no.2, pp.39-47, May 2009. **D. Liu**, H. Javaherian, O. Kovalenko, and T. Huang, "Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control,"*IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics*, vol.38, no.4, pp.988-993, Aug. 2008.-
**D. Liu**, Y. Zhang, and H. Zhang, "A self-learning call admission control scheme for CDMA cellular networks,"*IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks*, vol.16, no.5, pp.1219-1228, Sept. 2005. **D. Liu**, "An introduction to adaptive critic control: A paradigm based on approximate dynamic programming,"*IEEE Connections - The Newsletter of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society*, Feature Article, pp.6-11, Aug. 2005.**D. Liu**and H. Zhang, "A neural dynamic programming approach for learning control of failure avoidance problems,"*International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems*, vol.10, no.1, pp.21-32, Mar. 2005.**D. Liu**, "Approximate dynamic programming for self-learning control,"*ACTA Automatica Sinica*, vol.31, no.1, pp.13-18, Jan. 2005.**D. Liu**, X. Xiong, and Y. Zhang, "Action-dependent adaptive critic designs,"*Proc. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks,*Washington, DC, July 2001, pp.990-995.

Author:Derong LiuEstablished:August 4, 2009.